Introduction: Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma. Its incidence increases in the elderly. The evolution towards the severe form is frequent with a pejorative prognosis.
Objective: to describe the characteristic of CAP in the elderly, to analyze the occurrence of severity signs and the effectiveness of treatment by age.
Methodology: This is a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study of the exposed, non-exposed type carried out within the department of infectious disease of the CHU of Befelatanana during a period of 5 years (2010 to 2015). Inclusions was performed by the chest x-rays. The exposed case are aged 65 years and above, and the case not less than 65 years.
Results: We collected 136 cases of acute CAP and excluded 27 cases because of incomplete records. Cough, fever and sputum were significantly lower in people over 65 years of age, while severe leukopenia, normal CRP, and signs of severity such as impaired consciousness and low blood pressure Multi-lobar involvement was significantly more frequent. The duration of hospitalization of more than 10 days was significantly greater. This age constitutes a risk factor for mortality and unfavorable therapeutic response after 72 hours of antibiotic therapy.
Conclusion: Non-specific clinical signs of acute community-acquired pneumonia are common in elderly patients. The presentation is often severe with an extended hospital stay and a high mortality risk factor.